Baun V, Clarke V. Successful qualitative research: a practical guide for beginners.London: Sage Publications; 2013

Begley C, Elliott N, Lalor J, Coyne I, Higgins A, Comiskey CM. Differences between clinical specialist and advanced practitioner clinical practice, leadership, and research roles, responsibilities, and perceived outcomes (the SCAPE study). J Adv Nurs. 2013; 69:(6)1323-1337

Chesterton L, Jack K. Using Heidegger's philosophy of dasein to support person-centred research. Nurse Res. 2021; 29:(4)27-34

Cooligan H. Research methods and statistics in psychology, 6th edn. Hove: Psychology Press; 2014

Cooper MA, McDowell J, Raeside L The similarities and differences between advanced nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists. Br J Nurs. 2019; 28:(20)1308-1314

Department of Health. Advanced level nursing: a position statement. 2010. https// (accessed 22 March 2024)

Duffield C, Gardner G, Doubrovsky A, Adams M. Does education level influence the practice profile of advanced practice nursing?. Collegian. 2021; 28:(3)255-260

Eaton LH, Meins AR, Mitchell PH, Voss J, Doorenbos AZ. Evidence-based practice beliefs and behaviors of nurses providing cancer pain management: a mixed-methods approach. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2015; 42:(2)165-173

Gray A. Advanced or advancing nursing practice: what is the future direction for nursing?. Br J Nurs. 2016; 25:(1)8-13

Guerrero-Castañeda RF, Menezes TMO, Ojeda-Vargas MG. Characteristics of the phenomenological interview in nursing research. Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2017; 38:(2)

Health Education England. Advanced clinical practitioners framework. 2017. https// (accessed 15 March 2024)

Hewitt-Taylor J, Heaslip V, Rowe NE. Applying research to practice:exploring the barriers. Br J Nurs. 2012; 21:(6)356-359

Hospice UK. 2021 survey of clinical staff working in UK hospices. 2021. https//

Hut-Mossel L, Ahaus K, Welker G, Gans R. Understanding how and why audits work in improving the quality of hospital care: A systematic realist review. PLoS One. 2021; 16:(3)

International Council of Nursing. Guidelines on advanced practice nursing. 2020. https// (accessed 22 March 2024)

King O, West E, Lee S Research education and training for nurses and allied health professionals: a systematic scoping review. BMC Med Educ. 2022; 22:(1)

Kerr H, Rainey D. Addressing the current challenges of adopting evidence-based practice in nursing. Br J Nurs. 2021; 30:(16)970-974

King O, West E, Lee S, Glenister K, Quilliam C, Wong Shee A, Beks H. Research education and training for nurses and allied health professionals: a systematic scoping review. BMC Med Educ. 2022; 22:(1)

Leiber T. A general theory of learning and teaching and a related comprehensive set of performance indicators for higher education institutions.: Routledge; 2019

Lunden A, Kvist T, Teräs M, Häggman-Laitila A. Readiness and leadership in evidence-based practice and knowledge management: A cross-sectional survey of nurses' perceptions. Nord J Nurs Res. 2021; 41:(4)187-196

Malik G, McKenna L, Plummer V. Perceived knowledge, skills, attitude and contextual factors affecting evidence-based practice among nurse educators, clinical coaches and nurse specialists. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015; 21:46-57

McNett M, Tucker S, Melnyk BM. Evidence-based practice requires evidence-based implementation. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2021; 18:(2)74-75

Melnyk BM, Gallagher-Ford L, Zellefrow C, Tucker S, Van Dromme L, Thomas BK. Outcomes from the first Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare invitational expert forum. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2018a; 15:(1)5-15

Melnyk BM. Breaking down silos and making use of the evidence-based practice competencies in healthcare and academic programs: an urgent call to action. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2018b; 15:(1)3-4

Millberg LG, Berg L, Brämberg EB, Nordström G, Öhlén J. Academic learning for specialist nurses: A grounded theory study. Nurse Educ Pract. 2014; 14:(6)714-721

Future nurse; standards of practice for registered nurses.London: Nursing and Midwifery Council; 2018

Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. UK Quality Code for Higher Education Part A: Setting and Maintaining Academic Standards PART A The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies. 2014. https// (accessed 15 March 2024)

Royal College of Nursing. Advanced level nursing practice. 2018. https// (accessed 22 March 2024)

Saunders H, Vehviläinen-Julkunen K. Nurses' evidence-based practice beliefs and the role of evidence-based practice mentors at university hospitals in Finland. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2017; 14:(1)35-45

Serra-Barril MA, Benito-Aracil L, Pla-Consuegra M, Ferro-García T. Delphi survey on the application of advanced practice nursing competencies: strong points and unfinished business in cancer care. J Nurs Manag. 2022; 30:(8)4339-4353

Singleton JK. Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation in Doctor of Nursing Practice Students. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2017; 14:(5)412-418

Skills for Health. Integrated degree apprenticeship for advanced clinical practitioner at level 7: end point assessment plan. 2018. https// (accessed 15 March 2024)

Stokke K, Olsen NR, Espehaug B, Nortvedt MW. Evidence based practice beliefs and implementation among nurses: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nurs. 2014; 13:(1)

What influences specialist palliative care nurses working in a community setting to engage with research?

02 April 2024
Volume 29 · Issue 4


This study explored clinical nurse specialists and their research role.


The aim of this research was to understand what influences specialist palliative care nurses working in a community setting to engage with research.


Qualitative research using interviews with community based clinical nurse specialists (CNS).


A total of five themes were identified: research negativity and enthusiasm, clinical focus, audits, organisational support and keeping up to date.


Except for audit activity, CNS do not view the research pillar as an integral part of their clinical role. Previous research education may not give the CNS the breadth of research skills that they require. The advance professional apprenticeship may resolve these education issues. Managers and organisations need to prioritise EBP skills; supporting nurses with both education and EBP mentors to develop these skills. Nurses require ongoing time to engage with research activity and use these skills to improve both their own clinical practice and those who use them as a research resource.

The advanced nursing role was first seen in the UK in the mid-1990s (Gray, 2016). In the early years of the advanced nursing role, the UK Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (predecessor to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)) did not set standards to avoid restricting the development and innovation of an emerging area of nursing practice (Gray, 2016). This led to a lack of clarity in relation to the scope of practice, training, qualifications and the skills required to undertake the role safely and effectively. Advanced nursing titles emerged in an unplanned way for similar roles being established by individual organisations in response to local need due to the absence of agreement from a regulatory body (Gray, 2016).

In the UK, palliative care nurses work at an advanced level and frequently hold the title of clinical nurse specialist (CNS). In general, the CNS has a more in-depth knowledge of a specific field of nursing care (Cooper et al, 2019). Much has been written on advanced nursing roles including their title, effectiveness and role preparation (Duffield et al, 2021). Several organisations developed frameworks to help clarify the scope of the advanced nursing role and its educational requirements to stakeholders including the Department of Health (Department of Health, 2010), Royal College of Nursing (RCN, 2018), International Council of Nursing (International Council of Nurses, 2019), and Health Education England (HEE, 2017). All the frameworks included an element of research as a key area of the CNS role.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting Community Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for district and community nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical newsletter updates each month