This summative article has been written using literature based on the impact that diet can have on the management of stomas in the community. With more focus on ileostomy care, this article aims to provide information on the types of stomas and surgeries to create an overview of intestinal anatomy, how stoma formation may affect nutrient absorption and guidance on the management of stoma output, hydration and nutritional status based on current evidence. The strength of the evidence base behind the literature will be critically analysed and recommendations for future research made.
More than 21 000 people per year in the UK have a stoma formed (Elliston et al, 2019), often due to conditions such as:
A stoma is an opening that connects part of the bowel to the outside of the body, so waste products can be excreted into an external bag attached to the skin. The bowel consists of the large and small intestine. The large intestine (otherwise known as the colon) is made up of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. Its main functions include: the absorption of water, electrolytes and short-chain fatty acids and moving colonic contents towards the rectum for defaecation. The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The average length of the small intestine is 3–5m, with an even larger surface area due to its surface folds, villi and microvilli. Its main functions are to digest food and absorb fluid, electrolytes and nutrients (Lomer, 2014; Collins et al, 2017).
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